The view of the surgeon on the area being operated or done on, allowing him or her to be extra exact is what the microscope magnifies. An additional benefit is a monitor that projects an image of what the surgeon is working on. This allows students as well as residents to intimately or closely observe the whole procedure, gaining precious knowledge in the procedure. Other technological advances allowed surgeons to carry out more and more complex as well as hard operations. The introduction of antibiotics in the 1940s more minimized or decreased the danger of postoperative infection. The growth of the heart lung machine in 1953 by American surgeon John H. Gibbon allowed surgeons to more easily as well as productively performs surgery on these organs. It as well marked the beginning of modern clinical heart surgery. The operating microscope, developed in the 1950s, provided surgeons by means of a way to perform or to do delicate operations on minute body structures like the inner ear as well as the eye, as well as more recently, enabled surgeons to reattach the tiny blood vessels from severed limbs to the body. The very first kidney transplants that were performed in the 1950s, as well as the first heart transplant, in 1967, were performed by means of South African physician Christian Barnard. This is as always the first or primary step in treating tumors that can be moved out with an acceptable risk of nerve damage. What is more, new techniques as well as instruments allow neurosurgeons to get to tumors that were one time inaccessible. The high-powered surgical microscopes used or utilized in microsurgery, for example, make it easier to tell apart tumors from healthy tissue. Doctors as well can test different or diverse nerves, by means of surgical microscopes, in time of surgery with electrodes, as a result minimizing or reducing neurological damage. As well as in a number of instances, they might use sound waves to break up tumors as well as get rid of the remaining fragments. But even with these advances in treatment, not all tumors can be removed entirely or completely. Surgical removal is the best option for a lot of intramedullary as well as intradural extramedullary tumors, up till now large ependymomas at the end of the spine might be not possible to get out from the a lot of spinal nerves in this area. As well as even though benign tumors in the vertebrae are able to usually be totally removed, metastatic tumors are less likely to be operable. When a tumor has metastasized to the spine, radiation is more often than not the treatment of choice. In these cases, surgery using surgical microscopes is set-aside for people who do not have a diagnosis, who have tumors resistant to radiation or recurrent tumors that were previously irradiated. Recovery from spinal surgery might take weeks or months, depending on the procedure, as well as the patient might experience a temporary loss of sensation or other complications.